Why do some vaccinations require booster vaccinations

Booster vaccinations

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Booster vaccinations are required to achieve effective long-term protection.

Re-vaccination with one dose after 6-12 months (WHO) or adults / children after 2 years, infants after 0.5 years (manufacturer's instructions must be observed).

Re-vaccination every 10 years with one dose (one dose as a booster vaccination is sufficient even if the primary vaccination or booster was more than 10 years ago).

Re-vaccination depending on the vaccine manufacturer. 1 dose after 3 years, then if the risk persists, children and adults up to 59 years: 1 dose every 5 years; People aged 60 and over: 1 dose every 3 years; in the case of rapid immunization, immunodeficiency and persons> 60 years possibly earlier (observe manufacturer's instructions).

Yellow fever
The formal validity begins 10 days after vaccination and ends after 10 years. Since July 11, 2016, according to the International Health Regulation (IGV), proof of a one-time yellow fever vaccination has been valid upon entry. A booster vaccination is therefore no longer necessary. Nevertheless, when traveling to countries with yellow fever vaccination regulations (including transit), it makes sense to find out about the current regulations at an authorized yellow fever vaccination center or at the embassy of the country of entry. Basically, after vaccination, there is a protection period of at least 10 years, for most of the vaccinated even lifelong.

Hepatitis A
Re-vaccination not before 10 years (the manufacturers point out that antibodies can still be detectable even after decades). The vaccination protection lasts for at least 25 years, probably even for life. If a basic vaccination was started before the trip, then after the trip, the 2nd vaccination dose for basic vaccination after 6-18 months (depending on the manufacturer).

Hepatitis B.
The WHO assumes that if the hepatitis B vaccination series is completed in childhood, 95% of those vaccinated will be protected for at least 20 years, probably for life. As a check, a blood test can be carried out after 4-8 weeks (STIKO). The titer should be entered in the vaccination card to avoid unnecessary booster vaccinations. If a basic vaccination was started before the trip (e.g. 2 vaccinations with an interval of 1 month), the series of vaccinations will be continued after the trip (e.g. 3rd vaccination 6 months after the 1st vaccination dose) to successfully complete the basic vaccination.

Risk group vaccination every year (best vaccination time: September-November)

Japanese encephalitis
Re-vaccination if the risk persists 3rd vaccination within 12 to 24 months after the 2nd vaccination. The duration of vaccination protection is 10 years.

Re-vaccination after complete basic immunization is not routine, but only if there is an increased risk (e.g. travel to a risk area) every 10 years (indication vaccination according to STIKO).

A single vaccination with an MMR vaccine for all persons born after 1970 ≥ 18 years with an unclear vaccination status, without vaccination or with only one vaccination in childhood is sufficient.

Meningococcal meningitis
Since different vaccines are used against different types of meningococci, the manufacturer's information should be observed or the doctor should be consulted regarding the refreshment.

Re-vaccination every 10 years with one dose (one dose as a booster vaccination is sufficient even if the primary vaccination or booster was more than 10 years ago). If not already done, you should be vaccinated against whooping cough by means of a combined vaccination.

Re-vaccination, depending on the vaccine used, every 2-5 years or after 1 year and then every five years (depending on the manufacturer). The WHO does not recommend routine booster vaccinations when traveling. It is important that post-exposure prophylaxis is carried out immediately in the event of an injury, even after vaccination.

Re-vaccination after 2-3 years if the risk persists.

Vaccination interval
The minimum intervals between vaccinations (e.g. for basic immunization) must not be exceeded; on the other hand, there are no impermissible maximum intervals (e.g. for booster vaccinations). Every documented vaccination counts.

Vaccination certificate
According to Section 22 of the Infection Protection Act, all vaccinations should be documented in a vaccination card with the date, designation (trade name) and batch number of the vaccine, the name of the disease against which the vaccination is carried out and the name, address (stamp) and signature of the vaccinating doctor.