Who did Julius Caesar trust



Gaius Julius Caesar


1 Introduction

Caesar, Gaius Julius (100-44 BC), Roman general, statesman and writer. He was probably the best known and greatest man of the ancient world. He was even certified to have been "the greatest of all mortals".


2. Caesar's youth

Gaius Julius Caesar saw Caesar in Rome, probably on July 12 or 13, 100 BC. The light of the world. The month of birth is secured by inscriptions, but the year could have been passed down incorrectly. Julius Caesar was born into the Gens Julia family, one of the oldest patrician families in all of Rome. Her family tree is said to go back to Julius, the son of the Trojan hero Aeneas (son of Venus), who after escaping from the lost Troy became the legendary progenitor of Rome. However, the Julia were impoverished and had not held any important political office for a long time. Caesar's uncle was the important general Gaius Marius, who introduced him to Lucius Cornelius Cinna, who was a bitter opponent of the Optimate leader Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
Caesar was a good student and was interested in politics from a young age. As a ten-year-old he went to the forum and listened to the speeches of the important politicians.


2.1 His parents

Caesar's upbringing was mainly taken care of by his mother, Aurelia. She taught him in the first years of apprenticeship and later hired the famous rhetor and Gelerten M. Antonius Gnipho as a teacher, who also taught the young Cicero. Caesar's training included the Greek classics and philosophers, the best that the ancient world had to offer at that time. That didn't have to mean much, however, because Caesar's training was hardly different from that of the other young nobiles.
Caesar's father, who had the same name as his son, was not particularly successful. In the year his son was born, he held the lowest magistrate office, that of quaestur. In 92 he was still a praetur before he died unexpectedly in Pisa in 85.


3. Personal life

84 BC Married Caesar, Cinna's daughter Cornelia, and his first daughter Julia comes from this connection. Two years later, Sulla, who had been made dictator, demanded the divorce of Caesar and Cornelia. This was out of the question for Caesar. He refused to divorce. Through the intercession of influential friends, he was later pardoned by Sulla. More on that later. After his first wife Cornelia in 68 BC. When he died, he took Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla, as his wife.

His new wife presided over the secret fertility cult of the Bona Dea, from which men were excluded under severe penalties. "When the mysteries of the goddess were desecrated in the house of Caesar, where a festival was held in her honor, because Clodius had gained access to them in women's clothing, a public scandal broke out, in the aftermath of which Caesar separated from Pompeia." (Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia XP) What many did not know is that Julius Caesar was an epileptic.
However, one has been careful not to mention this in his presence. When Caesar still had no male successor even after his third marriage to Calpurnia (59 BC), he appointed his great-nephew Octavian as successor and heir in his will, who later became the first Roman emperor under the name of Augustus.
Caesar was a man of extensive literary education, so he also appeared as a gifted writer. He wrote seven books on the Gaulish War (Comentarii de bello Gallico), in which he described his Gaul campaigns in clear language and with a simple classical style, the book also contained a lot of information about the early Celtic and Germanic tribes. He also wrote a three-volume work on the civil war (Commentarii de bello civili).


4. Political beginnings and Caesar's escape from Rome

In the same year in which he married his first wife Cornelia (84 BC), Caesar received his first political office, that of the famen dialis, a priesthood reserved only for patricians. The connection with Cornelia was what brought young Caesar to his first adventure when he was around 18. Because his wife was the daughter of Cinna and Cinna, like Gaius Marius, was one of the populares (the opponents of the Optimates). Caesar's father-in-law, Cinna, was slain by mutinous soldiers before he could approach Sulla. In 82 BC Sulla returned from the war against Eupator, the ruler of Pontus, also known as Mithridates VI, and defeated the popular rebellion. Sulla's reign of terror began and Caesar, ostracized by his marriage to Cinna's daughter, had to flee Rome. When Sulla asked Caesar to divorce his wife Cornelia, the latter refused. Did Caesar really love his wife so much that in the life-threatening situation he found himself in, he refused to annul his marriage to Cornelia? Or was Caesar only afraid of the dowry he had received through marriage?
An answer to this question could tell us more about Caesar's character. But he would also be the only one who could answer it. Caesar's escape did not take long. “He was picked up by Sullans in Sabine territory. However, he was able to bribe her with two talents of gold (one talent corresponded to 240 aurei, almost 2 kg of fine gold) and was released. ”(Zt. Caesar, Hans Opermann 1900 p.75) In the meantime, Caesar's maternal side stood up for him, what saved his life. Sulla is said to have said prophetically: "The one whose salvation you so much wish, will one day bring you and the aristocracy to ruin ..." Caesar did not trust Sulla's pardon in the least and left Rome to join the military in Asia Minor . Only in the year 78 BC Caesar returned to Rome, where he withdrew from politics for the first time.
He only appeared as a prosecutor against Sulla's followers after Sulla's death. However, Caesar lost every trial. This did not seem to affect him particularly, because what he was probably trying to achieve with his accusations was to attract the attention of the Roman people. Which he succeeded. Nevertheless, Caesar left Rome after a few years because he could not take up any further office. He went to Rhodes to study rhetoric there.


4.1 Caesar is kidnapped

Caesar's sea voyage to Rhodes was hampered by a problem. His ship was kidnapped by Klikin pirates at Pharmakusa and Caesar was taken hostage. The pirates demanded a ransom of 20 talents for Caesar's release. Caesar, who found the sum ridiculous, laughed at his kidnappers. He felt it was a personal insult and asked the pirates if they even knew who they were looking at. And so Caesar increased his own ransom to 50 talents. He is also said to have treated the pirates more like subordinates than kidnappers. He gave them orders and also joked with them during his 38 days' imprisonment. "He is said to have even jokingly told them that he would let them down once he was free again (the pirates should soon stop laughing at this" joke ")." (Currently Caesar. Reclam Verlag, p. 110) Finally, Caesar was ransomed from Asia Minor with money from the treasury.

On the same night of his release, Caesar hired an entire fleet of his own accord, found the pirates and took them prisoner. He went to Bithynia to ask the proconsul Junius Iuncus for permission to execute the pirates. But Junius wanted to sell the pirates as slaves for a profit. Caesar, however, did not agree. He traveled back and had the pirates crucified on his own. Graciously, they were strangled beforehand; some authors saw this as the first sign of his “mildness”. The pirates who dared to kidnap Caesar were dead and Caesar cashed in the 50 talents himself. However, no one blamed him for this. This is not the case, and neither is the execution of the pirates. Some authors even admired his shrewd behavior. Whether this story is true or whether it was later invented only by Caesar's followers to extol Caesar's bravery and courage will probably never be known.

After Caesar had survived his little adventure well, he finally arrived in Rhodes, where he only stayed a few weeks.
He had to break off his studies and move to Asia Minor to fight Mithridates in 73 BC. To lead a campaign from which he came out victorious. It was not long before Caesar was back in Rome a year later and held a position as a member of the priestly college of the pontifices, which was responsible for questions relating to the Roman state cult. 65 BC Chr is Caesar Kurillian aedile and organizes innumerable games and gladiator fights in Rome for the amusement of the people. He derives the money for the expensive events from Crassus.


5. Caesar's slow ascent

5.1 Praetor in Spain


Caesar's first important office was his praetur in Spain, which he assumed on January 1st, 61 BC. Allegedly, before leaving for the province of Spain, Caesar owed an unbelievable amount of 100 million silver coins. Crassus saved Caesar's life by vouching for Caesar with a fifth of the sum. Now Caesar was able to leave unmolested for the province of Hispania Ulterior, which he 68 BC. Had already administered as quaestor.
Caesar needed success and prestige before he dared go back to Rome. Spain was a rich province, which Caesar knew very well. The exploitation of the territories was not enough for him. The outskirts of Spain and the resident Celtic-Iusitan tribes were not yet ruled by Rome and so Caesar decided to subjugate them. As a reason for war he claimed that the tribes were bands of robbers who threatened the decent farmers between the Duero and Tejo. He also attacked the Lusitans, the Callaikers and the Iber from the Iberian peninsulas, and each time emerged victorious from the battle. It was easy to live off the tribute payments of the conquered tribes. Caesar had confirmed himself as a strong man and an excellent strategist, and his financial situation improved more and more, because he received gifts of money (protection money) from other tribal leaders. After his financial situation had turned for the better, he hurriedly returned to Rome, where a triumph was due his victories in the province. He had to refuse this, otherwise he could not accept the candidacy for consul.

6.1 Triumvirate

In the year 59 BC Gaius Julius Caesar was appointed consul. That was what he wanted if it weren't for his colleague Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, who was one of the optimates who would hinder him in his political actions from then on. Caesar was dependent on allies, it was a great coincidence that he found these allies in the two most powerful men of Rome. Crassus, Pompey and Caesar formed an alliance of convenience that was later referred to as the 1st Triumvirate. Others also referred to the three-man alliance as "the three-headed monster". The alliance was perfect. Marcus Lucius Crassus was the richest man in Rome, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus the most successful general and Gaius Julius Caesar was known for his political influence and energy. The triumvirate was also strengthened when Pompey in April 59 BC. BC, Caesar's daughter Julia married.

7. Caesar as consul

At the beginning of the year 60 BC BC Caesar had a very difficult time as consul. Cato blocked each of his legislative proposals and he used well-known means to do so. Before the law could be voted on, Cato spoke up and talked and talked until all the senators had either gone or fell asleep. Caesar, who no longer wanted to accept this, had Cato thrown into prison by virtue of his office. Thereupon stood
all the senators up and followed Cato, all shouting in unison: "Better to go to prison with Cato than with Caesar in the Senate."
Caesar was forced to revoke his arrest warrant. From then on he knew that working with Cato was impossible. The only way to get your law passed was to submit it to the people's assembly. Since the people loved Caesar, the law was passed and the Senate could no longer exert any influence on it.

8. Proconsul in Gaul and the Gallic Wars

Caesar was entrusted by the Senate for a period of five years to the provinces
Manage Gallia Cisalpina, Illyeicum and Gallia Narbonesis.

To be a proconsul in Gaul was Caesar's most important gain in power, because now he could raise armies and soon afterwards began his campaigns of conquest in Gaul, although it was not part of his duties. His colleague and fellow consul Biblus withdrew from public life in Rome under protest because it was impossible for him to assert himself against Caesar, who had the Roman people on his side.
Several wars broke out in Gaul in which about a million Gauls lost their lives and another million were enslaved. So Caesar succeeded in bringing all (?) Gaul under Roman rule.
In the year 55 BC In BC Pompey and Crassus were also elected consuls and should now turn to their respective provinces. Pompey was to go to Spain and Crassus to Syria. Crassus went to Syria, Pompey, however, stayed in Italy, where he devoted himself to political business. Caesar's proconsulate was extended for another five years, so that he stayed in Gaul for a total of ten years (58 - 49 BC). In the same year Caesar moved to Britain, but lost the battle there and fled back to Gaul. Caesar, who could not come to terms with this defeat, moved to Britain again the following year and won.
56 BC In Revanna and Luca, the triumvirate was extended because the participants had become somewhat estranged from one another. Afterwards Caesar left to put down an uprising in Gaul and to lead his campaign in Britain

9. The end of the 1st Triumvirate

54th v. Chrassus lost a campaign against the Parthians and was killed on the battlefield. The alliance between Caesar and Pompey also broke when his wife Julia, Caesar's daughter, died. So the triumvirate completely fell apart.

10. Pompey's civil war ‘end

After the end of the triumvirate, Caesar had no more base in Rome and so he was unceremoniously removed from office when he refused to dismiss his legions. He was ordered to Rome to publicly prosecute him. A civil war could hardly be prevented, so Pompey was elected sole consul (two were common). It contained further powers to arm against the civil war. Later Pompey was appointed dictator by the Senate. According to tradition, the civil war began with Caesar's famous words:
"Alea iacta est" (The dice have been cast) or (The dice have been thrown), which he is said to have uttered when crossing the Rubicon, a small border river that separated his province of Gallia Cisalpina from Italy. A promagistrate was only allowed to cross the Rubicon without troops. But Caesar now knew that a civil war could no longer be avoided. During this time Pompey boasted to the Senate that he could raise 10 legions (Caesar only had one legion). But with all the boasting, he forgot the strategic preparatory work, so that his soldiers were currently in Spain. Nobody in Italy would fight for him. Pompey had no choice. He and the optimistic Senate left Rome to mobilize troops in Greece. So he and many senators fled to Brundisium. But Caesar was hot on his heels. He advanced so quickly that Domitius and his 20,000 soldiers managed to cut off Pompey. Caesar took the city shortly, he now had the opportunity to take revenge on the senators and knights. But Caesar did not do this, instead he let everyone who wanted to join his army and the others run, even Domitius was allowed to go with the entire war chest. This act of Caesar went down in Roman history as the gentleness of Corfinium and also secured him the approval of the people. Pompey went to Dyrrhachion while Caesar went to Rome to maintain his position. A little later he had to leave Rome again. Caesar was still on his Spanish campaign when the news was brought to him that he had been legally appointed dictator by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Caesar returned to Rome as a dictator (the Rubicon had only been crossed 10 months ago). Where he for the year 48 BC Chr was elected consul. Since Pompey had not been completely defeated, Caesar pursued him as far as Greece. The city of Dyrrhachion saw the first real battle that Caesar lost. Dyrrhachion had been his greatest defeat. But Caesar did not give up. And finally he managed to emerge victorious in the battle of Pharsalus. This victory marked the end of the republic. Pompey managed to escape to Egypt. And Caesar followed him.As Caesar on October 4th, 48 BC When he arrived in Alexandria, he was presented with the head of Pompey as a welcome gift.
The remaining followers of Pompey were born in Africa in 46 BC. Defeated BC. A year later, Caesar was finally able to celebrate his victory over Pompey, because Pompey's ‘sons were defeated in Spain. Now Caesar was the sole ruler of the entire Roman Empire.

11. The Alexandrian War and the encounter with Cleopatra

In 48 BC Caesar was in Alexandria, where he found a complicated political situation. After the death of King Ptolemy XII, his son Ptolemy XIII and his sister Cleopatra, united by marriage, were to rule over Egypt together. However, Cleopatra had left Egypt to set up an army in Syria against her brother. The Roman consul was not particularly popular in Egypt, but stayed anyway. What nobody can explain today. Cleopatra seemed a clever woman. Hidden in a sack, she was smuggled into Alexandria and brought to Caesar. Caesar, who was obviously very impressed by the Egyptian ruler, spent the night with her. For nine months he did not write a letter to Rome, where his actions were highly disapproved. Later Caesar even brought Cleopatra to Rome, where she showed him his son (Caesarion) for the first time in front of the Roman people and asked him to recognize the child as his son. He actually recognized the child as his son.
Potheinos, the eunuch of Ptolemy, called the 20,000 soldiers of Achillas to Alexandria to attack Caesar after he had survived his poisoning attack. Caesar locked himself in the royal palace, with Ptolemy and Potheinos as hostages. Achillas' army could not attack and therefore held the position. Caesar set fire to the Egyptian fleet so as not to leave them to Achillas. "The fire spread and affected the famous Great Library of Alexandria, which went up in flames along with its 4,000,000 books and writings." Has. The eunuch Potheinos was executed. 47 BC Caesar's legions came from Asia as reinforcements. Caesar suffered a heavy defeat when he tried to clear a dam. He was forced to swim all the way to his ship and was pulled out of the water by his soldiers, dripping wet. 400 of his men had fallen.

When Mithridates of Pergamum arrived in Alexandria, they allied themselves and together defeated the Egyptian army on the Nile.
Now Caesar had total control over Egypt and took a break with the beautiful ruler Cleopatra.


Cleopatra

“Since 51 BC Cleopatra - the last of the Ptolemaic dynasty - ruled over Egypt.
48 BC She was expelled in the following year, with the help of Caesar,
whose lover she was to return again. In the Roman Civil War after Caesar's murder
it remained neutral at first, but then took the side of Mark Antony and became his
Beloved and 37 BC Finally his wife. After losing to Octavian,
the later emperor Augustus, Cleopatra committed at Aktium in 30 BC. Suicide. Although the
According to tradition, Cleopatra was not really beautiful, because of her charm and her intelligence
and their education extraordinarily attractive - a quality which they enforce their political
Consciously used goals. "(Microsoft Encarta 2002 XP)


In Rome, Caesar's confidante Antonius had been installed as regent. Caesar ended his stay in Rome and moved on, first through Asia Minor and then back to Rome. Again he did not stay long, but traveled to North Africa, where he lived in 46 BC. BC at Tapsus led a battle against the republican senate troops and Cato the Younger. A year later he fought in Munda near Spain against the sons of Pompey. He won both battles.


12. Caesar's sole rule

Although the constitution only allowed a six-month term in office, Caesar was made dictator for life. Even if he rejected the title Rex (King), his rule had strong monarchical features. 54 BC Caesar was given the consulate for another 10 years. In the years to come he received all honors and powers of attorney and much more. He showed himself mildly to his opponents and distributed land to his veterans. He also carried out a calendar reform at the end of 46. The Julian calendar emerged, which we essentially follow today. Pope Gregory XIII only changed little things in the Julian calendar in 1582 and our Gregorian calendar was created. In his honor, the month of Quintilis was also renamed Julius. He was in charge of all armed forces and he was allowed to wear the gold wreath all the time. (Which was usually only common on triumphal marches). 44 BC Caesar was already worshiped as a god, and his statues were set up everywhere. He made it easier for people to obtain Roman citizenship and increased the number of senators from 500-600 to 900. The consuls were only allowed to be personally appointed by Caesar and he commanded that there should be more free workers instead of unfree slaves, so he wanted them Reduce unemployment. Caesar is said to have carelessly assigned important offices to friends in order to better administer the enlarged Roman Empire.

13. Assassination of Caesar

Caesar's position of power made him increasingly unpopular with the Senate families and his decisions repeatedly met with rejection in the Senate. Mann wanted to drive him out of Rome because they thought he was a tyrant.

He was also no longer the youngest and his health deteriorated accordingly, so that he could no longer take part in any campaigns. His epilepsy (sudden seizures) also got worse, which became more and more common with headaches and fainting spells. "Shortly before his death, Caesar planned a war that was to be bigger and more gigantic than all previous ones, he wanted to destroy the Parthians who tried to provoke Rome again and again." (Zt. Caesar, Herbert Opermann, 1900 p. 326) He also longed Caesar after a final battle with his legions, which were too old for the army. With 16 legions (1st legion: 4,000-6,000 foot soldiers, 300 horsemen) and 10,000 horsemen, in a huge procession that resembled that of Alexander (the great), Caesar wanted to march through the Caucasus (northward) and even along the Danube all the way back to Gaul. ”(Zt. Caesar, Reclam Verlag p. 203).

While he was leading the campaign, he hired a few deputies and the conspiracy began. In 44 BC The number of conspirators numbered more than 60 in BC, including Gaius Cassius and Marcus Junius Brutus, whom Caesar is said to have loved like a son, were among them. It was said that Brutus was Caesar's replacement heir if Octavian died before Caesar. On March 15, or on the Ides of March, the Senate met in the theater of Pompey.

The day before, Caesar had celebrated an orgy on his forthcoming campaign against the Parthians. That evening he was jokingly asked how he imagined a perfect death. Caesar replied that the best death is one that comes suddenly. The next morning Caesar was late and the conspirators were already afraid that he had been warned. Authors claimed that his wife Calpunia's premonitions were to blame for his delay. It is more likely, however, that Caesar had more of a headache after his last night. Brutus was instructed to lure his friend Caesar to the Curie. Caesar is said to have been warned of an attack by a note, but he never got around to reading the note. Meanwhile, as discussed, Marcus Antonius was stopped in front of the building by Gaius Trebonius. Caesar was surrounded by the conspirators in his place. Then a cimber yanked down his toga to release the agreed-upon sign. 40 conspirators attacked Caesar, many also missed and injured each other. Caesar is said to have recognized Brutus. “You Brutus too,” he is supposed to have asked. Caesar is said to have fought valiantly against his murderers, but had no chance. 23 stab wounds ended the life of the dictator Gaius Julius Caesar.

14. After Caesar

The Caesar killers probably thought that after Caesar's death, the old republic would be restored. This, however, was not the case. But on the contrary. The population panicked and a civil war ensued, worse and bloodier than ever before. Cicero, who allegedly witnessed the murder, is said to have exclaimed: “This is the just death of a tyrant.” Caesar's nephew and heir, Octavian (later Augustus), with the help of Caesar's friend Mark Antony, defeated the conspirators and thus avenged Caesar's death. Then in 31 BC Chr defeated Octavian, who now called himself Augustus, Antonius, who was married to Cleopatra, in a desert battle. Now Octavian or Augustus was the sole ruler and under him as emperor, peace reigned in the Roman kingdom.

15. Caesar's offices

July 13, 100 BC BC Caesar is born in Rome
80-78 BC BC Staff officer in Asia
69 BC BC Quaestor in Hispania
from 63 BC BC Pontifex Maximus
62 BC Chr. Praetor
59 BC Chr. Consul
58-51 BC BC Proconsul in Gaul
49 BC Dictator for 11 days
48 BC Chr. Consul II, from October Dictator II
47 BC Chr. Dictator III
46 BC Chr. Consul III, Dictator IV (from April for 10 years)
45 BC Chr. Consul IV, Dictator V
44 BC Chr. Consul V, Dictator VI (from February for life)

Source (s) for this paper: History book History and Events Upper Level I Edition A (Klett Verlag) De bello Gallico - G. Julius Caesar (Reclam Verlag) Caesar Hans Oppermann Große illustrated Poetz, Volume 8 (From Rome to Charlemagne) Rome - Gilbert Picard The Teutons - Felix Dahn, Volume 1 World History Alan Bullock TV program: Cleopatra VOX Video: We Germans Part 1 Romans and Teutons Computer Lexicon: Microsoft Encarta



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