What is synonymous with causing disease

Glossary of medical and health terms




A generalized seizure in which the patient briefly loses consciousness without falling or convulsions.

Absence epilepsy
Epilepsy syndrome, in which the dominant form of seizure is absence. Depending on the age at the onset of epilepsy and the frequency of seizures, a distinction is made between various absence epilepsies.

Add-on gift
Addition of an anti-epileptic medication to an existing anti-epileptic medication.

Cancerous tumor that originates from glandular tissue.

Adenoma (of the prostate)
Corresponds to the term "prostate hyperplasia", ie a benign enlargement of the prostate gland.

Stress hormone, which also constricts the blood vessels.

Follow-up treatment.

Alpha rhythm
To put it very simply: the predominant wave pattern of the EEG in healthy people when they are relaxed and awake.

"Anemia"; decrease in the number and / or the level of blood pigments in the red blood cells (erythrocytes).

History of the disease.

See epileptic seizure.

Hormone that contracts the blood vessels in the body and is the target of a number of drugs.

Drugs that treat infections caused by bacteria. Antibiotics should only be prescribed by the doctor and should be taken as directed. Before giving an antibiotic, it should be determined which bacteria are causing the infection.

Anti-epileptic drugs
Medicines used to treat epileptic seizures.

Antihypertensive drug
Drug that can lower high blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is not always achieved with just one drug.

anus praeter
artificial anus in the abdominal skin.

An irregular heartbeat.

Changes in the vessels that lead to a stiffening of the vessels.

Suction of air or liquid; Penetration of liquid or solid substances into the respiratory tract.

AT1 blocker
Group of new substances which, if well tolerated, bring about a good reduction in blood pressure.

Atonic Seizure
Seizure of sudden loss of muscle tension, which often causes the patient to fall to the ground. However, only very few falls in an epileptic seizure are due to an atonic seizure.

The onset of an attack consciously experienced by the patient, e.g. B. a feeling of warmth, tightness or nausea rising from the stomach or a tingling sensation in the hand. Often referred to as "anticipation", but strictly speaking it is already the beginning of the seizure. The aura thus corresponds to a single-focal seizure in which the seizure symptoms are not perceptible to outsiders.

Dosing out
Gradually increase the drug dose up to the highest tolerated dose.

Stereotypical movement patterns such as nestling, swallowing, chewing or licking movements, movements of the hands, shoulders, torso, hips or legs, which can be seen as symptoms e.g. B. occur in psychomotor or hypermotor epileptic seizures.

General Accident Insurance Institution (A).

AV block
A blockage in the conduction of electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricle. This can lead to the failure of the ventricular excitation. Often substitute rhythms then occur that control the chamber, but are significantly slower than normal.


Bar bubble
Thickened muscle strands in the bladder wall, caused by the "extra work" against the increased drainage resistance in the bladder. Signs of an advanced urinary tract blockage, e.g. in the case of an enlarged prostate.

Exercise ECG
An electrocardiogram, performed while exercising (often on a bike), detects heart defects that occur during exercise but have disappeared when you rest.

Trade association.

Visual or acoustic feedback from body functions (see also EEG biofeedback).

In Germany, several preparations of this drug group are available for the treatment of patients with osteological diseases. First generation drugs still had an inhibitory effect on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Newer preparations, which are derived from the aminobisphosphonates, essentially only inhibit the osteoclasts.

Assessment guidelines.

Blood levels
Concentration of a drug in the blood. Synonym: serum level.

Blood level determination
Measurement of the concentration of a drug in the blood.

A heartbeat that is too slow.


Treatment with drugs that inhibit cell growth, reduce cell proliferation or block the functional reserves of the cells.

Willingness of the patient to participate reliably in diagnostic and therapeutic measures.

Computed Tomography
Special X-ray examination method in which the measured values ​​obtained from a body region, e.g. B. the brain, can be converted into slice images with the aid of a computer. With the help of a computer tomographic examination of the brain, tumors, bleeding, malformations or other changes in the brain substance can generally be detected.

Abbreviation for computed tomography.


Intestinal epithelium
Cell layer that lines the intestine.

Abbreviation for German Epilepsy Association.

Electrical elimination of cardiac arrhythmias, which is usually carried out under anesthesia / sedation but also directly in emergencies.

Detection and naming of a disease.

Collective term for all examinations that should lead to the determination of an illness.

Diastolic blood pressure
Lower blood pressure value. You can't feel it. It forms, so to speak, the base value that consists of the heart before a pressure wave and that reappears afterwards.

Amount of medication taken in relation to a unit of time, e.g. B. daily dose or single dose.

Organ whose main function is to produce fluids that function in the same place or after being transported to another part of the body. Example: prostate (important gland of the male sexual organs), pancreas (digestive gland).

DXA method
For an early diagnosis of osteoporosis, a bone density measurement (osteodensitometry) is essential. Various procedures are used, of which the DXA (Dual X-ray Absorptiometry) method is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). This method examines the lumbar vertebrae and the femoral neck region. The measurement result is expressed in relation to the youth optimum as a T-score. If there is a deviation of -2.5 standard units from the youthful optimum (peak bone mass) without fractures already occurring, this is referred to as preclinical osteoporosis. If the first fractures occur (in the area of ​​the vertebral bodies or on the femoral neck), clinically manifest osteoporosis is present. The osteodensitometric measurement alone does not allow the diagnosis of osteoporosis, but it does provide information on the mineralization content of the bone. (See also T value)


Abbreviation for electroencephalogram (see there).

EEG biofeedback
To put it simply: visual or acoustic feedback of changes in voltage fluctuations in the brain that are recorded by the EEG.

Single partial seizure
Focal seizure without impairment of consciousness. See also: focal seizure.

Simple partial seizure
Single partial seizure.

Ejaculation. The ejaculate is a mixture of secretions from different sex glands such as the prostate or the epididymis. It also contains filaments of seeds. The ejaculate can be examined for abnormal changes.

Electrocardiogram, a device for recording the currents of the heart, which in many cases allows the diagnosis of a cardiac arrhythmia.

Measuring probe for the derivation of electrical voltage, e.g. B. EEG (electroencephalogram) on the scalp.

Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Examination method to record the electrical activity of the brain - usually with the help of electrodes placed on the scalp. Often - but not always - the EEG is changed in epilepsy. The changes are most evident during or immediately after a seizure.

The occurrence of blood clots in the context of atrial fibrillation, for example, which are ejected from the atrium after rhythmization and can lead to strokes. Therefore, lowering blood clotting is important in many cases.


Illumination and inspection of cavities and hollow organs with the help of a flexible hose in which an optical system (endoscope) is inserted. At the same time, a tissue sample can be taken during an endoscopy (biopsy) or even an endoscopic operation can be performed. Further diagnostics are possible by combining endoscopy with X-rays or ultrasound.

Proteins in the human body that have very different tasks. Enzyme mixtures are produced, for example, by the gastrointestinal mucous membrane, liver, gall bladder and pancreas and are used to crush or process the nutrients.

Generic term for a group of diseases characterized by the recurrence of epileptic seizures.

Epilepsy syndrome
See syndrome.

Epileptical attack
Epileptic seizures are an expression of a dysfunction of the brain. This leads to unusually violent, simultaneous electrical discharges from nerve cell clusters in the cerebrum, which temporarily suppress the normal function of the affected nerve cells.

Red blood cells.

Additional heartbeat "out of sequence", which manifests itself as a heart palpitations.


Febrile seizures
Epileptic seizures caused by fever in infancy and toddler age (usually at the beginning of a febrile infection).

Focal seizure
Epileptic seizure that begins in a circumscribed region of one cerebral hemisphere and then spreads more or less.
A distinction is made between single-focal seizures, in which there is no impairment of consciousness, and complex-focal seizures, in which an impairment of consciousness occurs as a seizure symptom. A transition to a generalized seizure is possible. One then speaks of a secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizure.

Folic acid
Vitamin belonging to the vitamin B group, e.g. B. found in milk, cheese, dark leafy vegetables and yeast.

Photo stimulation
Simplified: Rhythmic flashes of light that are used in the EEG (electroencephalogram) to cause certain changes in the EEG wave pattern that cannot be adequately recognized under resting conditions.

Frontal lobes
The cerebral hemisphere is anatomically divided into four lobes according to the course of typical furrows. The term "frontal" comes from the Latin and means forehead towards the front.


Degree of disability.

Casual fit
Epileptic attack caused by an acute cause (e.g. poisoning, lack of oxygen, drop in blood sugar, or fever in small children). The most common cause of an occasional seizure is alcohol withdrawal in alcoholic people.

Generalized seizure
Seizure in which both cerebral hemispheres are involved in the seizure activity from the start.

In addition to naturally occurring cortisol, there are numerous similar chemical compounds that are of high therapeutic value. Because of their central importance for glucose metabolism, they are also known as glucocorticoids.
Glucocorticoid therapy is indicated for numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, but osteoporosis occurs as a significant long-term consequence in a considerable proportion of the patients treated.

Assessment of the degree of malignancy of the cancerous tumor, e.g. according to the similarity of the cancer cells with cells of the organ from which the cancer originates or the rate of cell division in the tumor.

Grand times
An outdated but often still used term for a major seizure. The current term is generalized tonic-clonic seizure.

The brain is anatomically divided into different parts that merge into one another. The uppermost part, also known as the endbrain (telencephalon), arches in two halves (hemispheres) like a mushroom over parts of the rest of the brain.


The time after which the serum concentration of a drug has dropped to half its original value.

Doctrine of the blood diseases.

Hemoccult test
Test that detects blood that is hidden in the stool and cannot be seen.

Urine flow measurement
A urine flow meter can be used to measure the strength and amount of the urine stream (uroflow).

Urinary retention
If it is no longer possible to empty the urine, this is called urinary retention. This often very painful condition usually has to be remedied by a doctor in an emergency by draining the urine with a catheter.

The anticoagulant substance.
Long-term heparin treatment can cause osteoporosis.

Heart rate
The number of times a heart beats. Is given in beats per minute.

Electrical device that generates a frequency similar to the normal heart rhythm and ensures a regular heart rhythm if the heart is beating too slowly.

Organic brain changes
Changes in mental abilities or personality traits due to damage to or dysfunction of the brain.

Brain wave
Colloquial term for the electroencephalogram (EEG).

Testicles / epididymis
The most important sex glands in men. At sexually mature age, they produce and store the sperm threads and sex hormones.

Active substances produced in different glands, which are usually transported via the bloodstream to other parts of the body and perform specific tasks there (example: sex hormone from the testes, growth hormone from the pituitary gland, thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland).

Concerning hormones. A hormone is a substance produced in an organ or gland that is released into the blood and has an effect on other parts of the body.

A high level of potassium in the blood, which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms.

Technical term for a pathological increase in blood pressure.

Breathing deep and fast. Is used in the electroencephalogram (EEG) to induce certain changes in the EEG wave image, which cannot be sufficiently recognized under resting conditions and which are typical of epilepsy.

Lack of sodium in the blood, for example possible when taking carbamazepine or oxcarbamazepine. The reason: more water is retained in the body, sodium is distributed over a larger amount of fluid.


immune system
The body's own defense system, which for example recognizes pathogens or tumor cells as foreign and destroys them.

Display; Reason, circumstance or need to perform a specific medical procedure.

Interaction, e.g. B. between drugs.

Inject intramuscularly (IM)
Inject into a muscle.

Inject intravenously (IV)
Inject into a vein (blood vessel).

Research methods that penetrate beneath the surface of the body.

Disability insurance (CH).

Abbreviation for Epilepsy Information Center.


Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
Form of epilepsy with generalized seizures. There are typically two types of seizures: seizures with brief twitches in the arms without loss of consciousness (myoclonic seizures), grand mal seizures, and absenteeism. Usually the seizure types occur after you wake up in the morning. The onset of epilepsy is usually between the ages of 10 and 20. The chances of becoming seizure-free are good, but there is a high risk that the seizures will recur after stopping the medication.


Ventricular fibrillation
Uncoordinated movements of the ventricle at high frequencies which, if left untreated, lead directly to death.


Cancerous tumor that arises from the covering tissue (epithelium). Carcinomas have different forms in terms of their structure and growth (for example adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma).

Thin, flexible plastic tubes that are used, for example, to drain urine from the bladder in the event of urinary retention.

Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging.

Rhythmic twitching of one muscle (myoclonia) or several muscle groups.

Cognitive abilities
Mental faculties.


Reflection of the large intestine.

Combination therapy
Taking two or more drugs to treat the same disease at the same time.

Complex partial seizure
Partial seizure, in which the patient is unconscious. See also: focal seizure.

Complex partial seizure
Complex partial seizure, sometimes called complex partial seizure.

Physical and mental condition.

Contraindication: Circumstances (e.g. age, pregnancy, certain illness, etc.) which prohibit a measure that is indicated in itself.

Contrast media
Very simplified: means that z. B. is administered in computer or magnetic resonance imaging for better resolution or display.

Little used abbreviation for magnetic resonance imaging, see magnetic resonance therapy.


Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
A severe form of epilepsy named after the epileptologists W. G. Lennox (USA) and H. Gastaut (France), which usually begins in the fourth to eighth year of life and is associated with various types of seizures, in particular atypical absences, falls and tonic seizures (predominantly occurring during sleep). The diagnostic criteria also include the typical EEG changes in the form of generalized slow-spike-wave complexes and an intellectual disability.

Decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) in the blood.

White blood cells.

Vessels of lymph flow.

Tissue water that is transported in its own vascular system to the veins near the heart, where it mixes again with the blood.

Lymph nodes
The lymph nodes are filters for the tissue water (lymph) in a region of the body in numerous parts of the body (lymph node stations). The often used term lymph glands is wrong, as the lymph nodes do not have any glandular function. The lymph nodes are an important part of the immune system.


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Examination procedure in which two-dimensional slice images of the brain (or other organs) are created using magnetic fields. Synonyms: KST (nuclear spin tomography) or English NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging).


Reduced earning capacity (A, D).

Drug interaction
Drug interaction.

Onset of menopause. At this biologically determined point in time (on average around the age of 50), ovarian function regresses and estrogen formation is reduced in every woman.

Breakdown and / or remodeling product of a substance occurring in the blood, e.g. B. a drug.

Focus of the disease that arises through the spread of pathogenic material (tumor cells, bacteria) from an original focus of the disease. In a narrower sense, it means the metastasis of a malignant tumor (distant metastasis: metastasis that is transmitted via the blood or lymphatic path and is found far from the original tumor). Metastasis can occur via the bloodstream (hematogenous) or via the lymphatic system (lymphogenous).

Taking only one drug related to the disease to be treated.

Concerning the movement or locomotor organs.

Abbreviation for magnetic resonance imaging = magnetic resonance imaging.

Abbreviation for magnetic resonance imaging.

Muscle tone
The state of tension in a muscle.

Brief, involuntary, lightning-like muscle twitches: They can occur in isolation or in series.

Myoclonic-astatic seizures
Seizures with muscle twitching leading to falls.

Myoclonic seizures
Seizures with sudden twitching of the muscles, often while conscious.


Subject area that deals with the functional relationships between certain areas of the brain and certain mental abilities and behaviors.

Medical specialty that deals with the visual representation (e.g. MRI, CT) of the nervous system.

Abbreviation for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance = magnetic resonance tomography


Occipital lobe
The cerebral hemisphere is anatomically divided into four lobes according to the course of typical furrows. The term "occipital" is derived from the Latin occiput = back of the head and means towards the back of the head.

Cells for building bones, form a border around the bone tissue, and later transform into so-called osteocytes (bone cells).


(Latin: palliare = to cover with a coat); soothing. Measures taken to eliminate certain symptoms without actually being able to eliminate the underlying condition. Palliative therapy is of particular importance when it is no longer possible to cure a cancer patient. In the medical field, intensive pain therapy and the alleviation of other disease-related symptoms are in the foreground.

Parietal lobes
The cerebral hemisphere is anatomically divided into four lobes according to the course of typical furrows. The term "parietal" refers to the region which is located below the skull bone (os parietale) called the "parietal bone".

Partial seizure
Focal seizure.

Peak bone mass
Maximum bone density that a person achieves at a young age.

Abbreviation for positron emission tomography.


Phytotherapeutic agents
Medicines that are mainly made from parts of plants (roots, leaves, seeds, etc.) and their active ingredients and are used as teas, solutions, tablets or capsules.

Ineffective sham drug similar in appearance, taste, etc. to a real drug.

mostly pedunculated, benign protrusion of the mucous membrane of the colon wall.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Very simplified: Examination method for measuring brain metabolism using short-term radiation from so-called elementary particles. Representation in the form of colored layer images.

Period after the attack.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis
Also osteoporosis type I, or primary osteoporosis in women after the menopause, with manifestation between the ages of 50 and 70 years, possibly earlier.

Primary tumor
The first lump that may have metastasized.


Prediction of a future development (for example the course of the disease) based on critical assessment of the present; Prospects for the course of an illness.

Prophylactic / prophylaxis

Prostate gland. One of the man's sex glands. It is located in the upper section of the urethra and can be palpated from the rectum.

Prostatic hyperplasia
Instead, terms such as benign prostate enlargement, prostate adenoma or prostate hypertrophy are also used. It describes a benign enlargement of the prostate gland and usually develops slowly with age.

Prostate cancer / prostate cancer
Malignant tumor of the prostate gland. Develops from other prostate cells than the benign enlargement and therefore has nothing to do with it causally. It is often recognized too late as there are no symptoms in the early stages.

Prostate check
Examination of the prostate gland paid for by the health insurance company from the age of 45. Since prostate disease may be detected too late, it should be used annually.

Inflammation of the prostate gland, usually caused by bacteria. Always has to be treated by a doctor, usually with antibiotics.


Psychomotor seizure
Simplified: Complex-focal seizure, in which the patient appears to be cupped and performs inappropriate actions (e.g. nestling movements, chewing or smacking)


Short for radiotherapy, treatment with radiation.

Radiation treatment.

Measures for medical recovery, professional rehabilitation and social reintegration through various measures.

Irritable bladder
Pathological nerve changes in the urinary bladder wall that usually occur in the advanced stages of a urinary tract disease. When the bladder is emptied, the disturbed nerves no longer function properly and can lead to a permanent urge to urinate, even though the bladder is almost empty.

Rectal tube, tube for introducing drugs into the rectum.

Reflection of the rectum / rectum.

Rectum; connects the colon and anus.

Rectum, rectal exam
Rectum means rectum or rectum. During the rectal examination, the anus and the prostate are scanned for surface changes with the finger (glove and lubricant). Painless, should be done annually.

Declining symptoms of illness, but without achieving a cure. A distinction is made between full remission: complete regression of the symptoms after therapy, and partial remission: significant improvement in the clinical findings and the general condition without complete normalization.

Uptake of substances by living cells, e.g. B. Absorption of a drug from the intestinal tract through the intestinal lining into the blood.

Resorption / resorb
Absorption of water and substances dissolved in it from the inside of the intestine into the blood.

Residual urine
The urine remaining in the bladder after the urination is complete. The amount can be measured with an ultrasound device, among other things.

"Relapse", recurrence of a disease, for example a tumor, after treatment, or recurrence of a seizure after a period of seizure-free time.


Parietal lobes
See parietal lobes.

Sleep EEG
EEG recording during sleep.

Temporal lobe
See temporal lobe.

Sleep deprivation EEG
Recording of an electroencephalogram (EEG) after being fully or partially awake at night.

Sleep grand times
Obsolete term for a major epileptic seizure (current name: generalized tonic-clonic seizure) that occurs during sleep.

Make you tired.

Secondary osteoporosis
The doctor differentiates between primary and secondary osteoporosis. The secondary form is the result of an underlying disease. These can be the following diseases: Sex hormone deficiency in estrogens or testosterones, hormone excess (cortisone, thyroid hormones), digestive and absorption disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, kidney diseases with increased calcium excretion, chronic inflammatory diseases (Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis), tumors .

Senile osteoporosis
Age osteoporosis Osteoporosis type II.

Concerning perceptions (e.g. smelling and hearing) or organs of perception.

Serum concentration
The concentration of a drug in the blood.

Serum levels
The concentration of a drug in the blood. Synonym: blood level.

Sex hormones
Technical term for sex hormones.
The sex hormones regulate the development and function of the sexual organs. But they also have an influence on the metabolism in other organs.

Simultaneous double image recording
Video EEG.

Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT)
Examination method for measuring cerebral blood flow or other functions using weakly radioactive substances. Representation in the form of colored layer images or in grayscale.

Abbreviation for single photon emission tomography.

Spina bifida
"Open back", malformation in the form of a gap in the spine, sometimes associated with a malformation of the spinal cord.

Status epilepticus
"Persistent epileptic state", caused either by an unusually long epileptic seizure or by frequently repetitive epileptic seizures with very short seizure-free periods during which the patient does not fully recover. Status epilepticus requires immediate medical attention.

Frontal lobe
See frontal lobes.

Artificial anus in the abdominal skin.

Indicative sign of illness.

Group of symptoms that occur at the same time.

Systolic blood pressure
Upper blood pressure value, which is built up by the heart and can also be felt as a pulse on the neck or wrist.


Too fast a heartbeat sequence.

Daily dispenser
Dosage box for one day. Help with regular pill intake.

Temporal lobe
The cerebral hemisphere is anatomically divided into four lobes according to the course of typical furrows. The term "temporal" refers to the region of the temple.

Generation of malformations in offspring.

Decrease in the number of platelets (thrombocytes) in the blood.

Tolerance development
The effects or side effects of a drug wear off over time.

Persistent tension in the muscles.

Tonic attack
Seizure associated with increased tension in the muscles. Danger! Not every seizure associated with increased muscle tone in individual areas of the body is a tonic seizure.

Tonic-clonic seizure
Attack in which the muscles are initially tensed with subsequent muscle twitching.

Tension, often related to muscle tension.

Transurethral prostate resection
Short TUR or TURP; Surgical procedure in which parts of the prostate are "peeled off" using modern devices.


Uncontrolled growing cell growths that can occur throughout the body. In the narrower sense: cancerous tumor.

T value
The T-value or T-Score shows how much a person's bone density differs from the bone density of young healthy adults.
The T-Score is important because, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), it is decisive firstly for the diagnosis and secondly for the question of a necessary therapy.
According to the WHO, osteoporosis is manifest if the T-score is less than / equal to - 2.5. (See also DXA method)


Latin term for urethra.

The urologist specializes in diseases of the kidneys, the lower urinary tract, the bladder and the male genitals.


Video EEG
Simultaneous Double Image Recording (SDA), i.e. H. simultaneous recording of EEG and video recording of the patient; serves to record seizures.

See aura.

Atrial fibrillation
Uncoordinated movements of the atrium leading to loss of function of the atrium. Usually in need of treatment.


West Syndrome
An often difficult to treat form of epilepsy in early childhood, which is named after the English doctor W. J. West and which is associated with so-called lightning Nick Salaam attacks (BNS attacks).

World health organization.

Weekly dispenser
Dosage box for a week. Help with regular pill intake.


Tongue bite
As a rule, there are bruises on the side of the tongue, rarely bite wounds on the tip of the tongue.

Medicines that preferentially inhibit the growth of tumor cells, but also damage healthy cells to a certain extent. This often prevents cells from dividing.