How are toilets made

Overview of sanitary objects

Bathroom: an overview of sanitary objects

The market for sanitary furniture is now unmanageably large. The range not only includes a wide variety of designs, but also technological innovations, for example with regard to surfaces or functionality. In addition to the long-established standard shapes for bathtub, shower and toilet, there are now numerous free and special shapes. The manufacturers are thus following the trend towards individuality and the development of sanitary rooms from a purely functional room to part of the apartment. Quality of life is also a top priority in the bathroom - beautiful and unusual sanitary facilities are a step there.

Ceramic surfaces

Washstands, toilet bowls and bidets are usually made of ceramic. The sanitary objects consist of the so-called shards and a high-quality and long-lasting glaze. Modern glazes are characterized by the following properties:

  • High-gloss and easy to care for
  • Pore-free and less susceptible to dirt
  • Waterproof and hygienic
  • Resistant to acids and alkalis in bathrooms and households

Ceramic surfaces with a lotus effect are ultra-modern and increasingly popular. The principle, copied from nature, ensures that the surfaces clean themselves, so to speak. A fine microstructure with countless small knobs reduces the contact of water with the surface. When cleaning with water, the beading drops simply take dirt and dust with them. Glazes mixed with silver ions are also new: the material has an antibacterial effect and ensures particularly hygienic surfaces.

Tip: Care should be taken when using detergents containing bleach. If these act on the ceramic for too long, the surface can be attacked.

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Acrylic sanitary ware

Today, acrylic is used as a material for bathtubs and shower trays. The thermoplastic is odorless and has a number of other advantages:

  • Well malleable when exposed to heat
  • Cheaper than enamel or steel tubs
  • Light weight
  • Warm surface
  • Break-proof, impact-resistant and shock-resistant

In addition to sanitary acrylic, composite materials are increasingly being used today. These are based on acrylic or polyester resin mixed with minerals, these materials are known in the trade as mineral material or mineral cast. Common to all composite materials are easy-care surfaces, high durability and high strength.

Tip: Mild cleaning agents are popular here. Composite materials in particular require special care products depending on their composition; the manufacturer's instructions must be observed.

Wash basins and vanities

The wash basin is an important part of the sanitary facilities in the bathroom and toilet. Here, too, there are many different variants, sanitary series usually combine various washbasins and washbasins, toilets, bathtubs and bidets in one design. A basic distinction is made between the following variants:

  • Wall-hung washbasins as straight or corner washbasins
  • Washbasins as insert or countertop washbasins
  • Built-in sink

Wall-hung washbasins are used in barrier-free areas and in many classic bathrooms. With appropriate assembly, they can be driven under and can therefore also be used by wheelchair users. For stylish bathrooms, countertop washbasins are an option. A basin in a flexibly selectable shape is mounted on a table, the drainage pipe runs inside the table. Built-in sinks merge optically with the washbasin and appear as if they were made from one piece.

Tip: The space-saving variants of the washbasin are suitable for small bathrooms and guest toilets. They are available in different shapes, corner sinks are particularly space-saving

Enamel bathtubs

Steel enamel has long been a popular material for bathtubs and is still used today. The hard-wearing and long-lasting steel tubs are provided with an enamel layer as protection against corrosion. Enamel consists of natural raw materials such as quartz, feldspar, potash and metal oxides. The following advantages speak for an enamelled bathtub:

  • Pore-free and dirt-repellent
  • High gloss
  • Hygienic and antibacterial
  • Insensitive to cosmetics and cleaning agents
  • Does not discolour

The low heat storage capacity of steel enamel is often perceived as a disadvantage, as the water cools down more quickly. Due to the limited deformability of the material, enamel tubs are mainly implemented in the classic forms.


Modern bathtubs are available today in many shapes. This suits the individual bathroom, special forms are particularly in demand when renovating bathrooms. In general, in addition to the classic rectangular bathtub in various sizes, the following types of tubs are available in stores:

  • Space-saving tubs are used when things get tight in the bathroom. This collective term includes all bathtubs that, due to their special shape, require less space than conventional bathtubs. The well-known hip baths also belong to this type.
  • Corner bathtubs make every bathroom look particularly spacious. The space in the corner is optimally used; thanks to the various shapes and dimensions, corner bathtubs can be perfectly adapted to the space available and to the design requirements.
  • Oval tubs are often installed free-standing and real eye-catchers. Here, too, the large variety of shapes and sizes makes an individual selection possible. Sufficient space and a corresponding sanitary installation or special fittings are required for installation.
Tip: With the exception of the free-standing bathtub, bathtubs are usually built into a tub support, which is then tiled. As an alternative, tub aprons made of metal, plastic or wood can also be chosen for the cladding.

Shower trays

The standard shower consists of a square shower tray measuring 90 x 90 cm. However, this classic gives way to more modern forms, for example very flat shower trays or floor-level showers, at the latest when it is converted. Shower trays are available in various sizes, from particularly generous to the economy version. The models also differ in depth. With a view to the barrier-free bathroom in old age, floor-level showers are increasingly being installed; in many cases, the bathroom floor is simply tiled into the shower area. If there is enough space, there are showers that are even suitable for wheelchair users.

Tip: In small bathrooms there is still space for a shower and bathtub, if you install a shower bathtub. The integrated shower zone in the bathtub gives the user the choice. The bathtub has a waterproof door and a shower attachment that catches the splashing water.

The toilet

Today no apartment can do without a toilet. Usually there is a separate guest toilet in addition to the bathroom. Here, too, the trade has multiple variants available. There is usually a corresponding bidet to match the toilet design. If you don't have a lot of space and want both, today you can opt for the multifunctional shower toilet. A distinction is made between toilets according to various criteria, for example according to the attachment:

  • Floor-standing toilets are mounted on the floor in the bathroom or toilet, and the waste water is drained away at the same time through the stand.
  • Wall-hung toilets are usually attached directly to the wall via a pre-wall installation. The big advantage: The area under the toilet can be cleaned thoroughly and hygienically.

Another differentiation concerns the inner shape:

  • Dishwashers have become rare today; with this variant, the excretions remain on a kind of platform and have to be washed away. Problems easily arise here, especially when the water pressure is low.
  • Washdowns are standard, the feces are transported directly into the drainage hole. The advantage is that it is easier to wash away, but also less odor pollution, as the excretions fall directly into the water.

The cisterns can also be installed in different versions. The most popular variant is the concealed cistern; there are also toilets with a top-mounted cistern or wall-mounted cistern. In addition to the classic toilets, there are now also special versions with special properties:

  • The rimless toilet is particularly hygienic and easy to clean. Instead of a closed flushing channel with openings, the toilet has an open channel that is easily accessible. The low water consumption, less flushing noise, easy cleaning and the low breeding ground for bacteria speak in favor of the new technology.
  • The shower toilet is a combination of shower and bidet. After every visit to the toilet, a warm shower jet can be triggered at the push of a button or a lever, which gently and gently cleanses the intimate area. The intensity of the shower jet can be individually adjusted using a controller.
  • Toilets with odor extraction are particularly suitable for windowless bathrooms and toilets. The odors are extracted directly from the toilet bowl and directed outside or cleaned using the circulating air principle.
Tip: The special solutions in the area of ​​toilets are often particularly suitable for barrier-free bathrooms and for use by children or physically handicapped people.

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